May 24, 2013
Fieldwork in Valley Forge
Washington Memorial Chapel, Valley Forge
Especially in this early summer weather, Valley Forge National Historical Park is a popular local destination for hiking, running, dog-walking and picnicking between Washington’s Headquarters and the National Memorial Arch, and it’s rare to drive through the park without sharing the road with several cyclists. This was not always the case. In 1906, Reverend Burk dejectedly noted that if he were to announce plans for his Valley Forge Museum of American History there, “the public was not at Valley Forge, and it was not possible that many would go there” (Burk 11-12). In what Burk called “the days of the horse and carriage, when only the rich drove,” Valley Forge was not easily accessible.
Reverend Burk's catalog for "Exhibition of American Wars," 1908. Collection of the Museum of the American Revolution
Wooden fragment from Pohick Church, Virginia, 1774, Collection of the Museum of the American Revolution. General Washington was among the vestrtymen who supervised the construction of Pohick Church. During the American Civil War, souvenir seeking Union forces occupied Pohick Church on several occasions. This decorative wooden fragment was carefully preserved by descendants of one such soldier, who cherished it as a memento of George Washington.
Anticipating that the Valley Forge Museum of American History would eventually be housed in the future Washington Memorial Chapel, Burk hosted a first “Exhibition of American Wars” in his Norristown parish house from February 17-19, 1908. As he stated in the 55-page exhibition catalogue, “Eventually, these relics will be placed in the Patriots’ Hall, to be built at Valley Forge.” The exhibit featured items such as Washingtoniana, including a fragment of George Washington’s Pohick Church (pictured above), and a loaned collection of Civil War objects. As a fringe benefit, Burk also introduced an inaugural showcase of his father’s “Indian Relics,” all found near Valley Forge. Burk was especially grateful that the exhibition “raised the spirit of helpfulness” among friends and future benefactors.
By Washington’s birthday, 1909, progress on the Washington Memorial Chapel’s construction permitted Burk to dedicate the Valley Forge Museum of American History in the new Patriot’s Hall, a small 25’ by 24’ room on the Chapel’s ground floor. Ever faithful to elevating George Washington’s virtue, Burk consistently tracked and planned project milestones according to and around that date. On that occasion, Burk reflected in his Confessions that “America was sung, and prayers of dedication were offered."
Howard Pyle's signature in Washington Memorial Chapel guestbook, September 18, 1909. Collection of the Museum of the American Revolution.
Burk saw the Chapel as an “American Westminster” to attract patriotic Americans far and wide, with the new Museum its primary educator. One of the museum’s earliest enthusiasts was local artist Howard Pyle, founder of the Brandywine School near Chadds Ford, PA, and mentor to illustrators including N.C. Wyeth and Violet Oakley. While visiting the Chapel and Museum with Mrs. Pyle, Pyle inked his name in the guestbook with a sketch of George Washington in profile. This registry is now in the collection of the Museum of the American Revolution. Burk remembered Mr. Pyle’s “keen interest in the relics and the thoughts which they suggested…[we discussed] the plans for both [the Chapel and the Museum] and the great future which [Pyle] foresaw to be theirs” (Burk 25-26). Pyle was known for bringing American history to life through art, and many of his illustrations can be seen today at Brandywine River Museum and Delaware Art Museum.
The Nation Makers, 1903. Illustration published as frontispiece in "Collier's Weekly" (June 2, 1906), unaccompanied by text. Oil on canvas. Brandywine River Museum.
Burk’s sense of purpose in Valley Forge was based on finding others who shared his passion and valued the artifacts’ preservation. Visitors like Pyle, according to Burk, “realized that we were commemorating history and making history” (Burk 24). Burk’s Confessions thanks long lists of early contributors and communicates his outstanding belief in the American people to recognize history in the making. All items accessioned in the permanent collection would have to follow Burk’s personal mission, which motivated his ambitious fieldwork in Valley Forge:
“[The Museum’s] purpose, as was seen at once by the arrangement of the collections, is not the glorification of war, but the development of patriotism along the lines of education as the purpose of the Chapel is the development of patriotism along the lines of religion. It is educational in the best sense of the word and its influence will surely be potent in a keener appreciation, by those who enter the spirit, of what it has cost, in the work of the soldier and artisan, for the American people to enter upon their heritage of prosperity and peace.” (Burk 35)
At the “Exhibition of American Wars” in 1908, Burk recollected “the collections that belonged to the Museum were interesting, but of no great extent” (Burk 13). When the Valley Forge Museum of American History finally opened at the Chapel in 1909, “The cases were such as I could beg or buy, the relics were few, but […] they were of real value.” In the summer of 1909, an object would travel to the Museum to bring the public to Valley Forge, as the result of a “letter that made it impossible to sleep” (Burk 36) and an unlikely friendship built on a strikingly, and surprisingly, similar spirit of patriotism.
Visitor's postcard of Washington Memorial Chapel, 1930
“Real Reverence:” The Reverend and the Southern Heiress
Burk, Rev. W. Herbert, D.D. Making a Museum: The Confessions of a Curator, 1926.
Washington Memorial Chapel at Valley Forge, PA | Heritage and History of the Chapel
Museum of the American Revolution | Browse the Collection: George Washington’s Church
Pohick Church | Lorton, VA | History of Pohick Church
Brandywine River Museum | Chadds Ford, PA | Audio Tour for Howard Pyle, The Nation Makers.
Delaware Art Museum | Wilmington, DE | About Howard Pyle
Charley Parker, “Howard Pyle: American Master Rediscovered (at Delaware Art Museum),” Lines and Colors (blog), December 6, 2011.
Joyce K. Schiller, “The Nation Makers,” Exploring Illustration: Essays in Visual Studies (blog), The Rockwell Center for American Visual Studies, September 11, 2009.
Ian Schoenherr, Howard Pyle (blog), 2009 – Present.